Catfish Farming In Nigeria Business Plan / Feasibility Report
How to Start Catfish farming in Nigeria.
Catfish farming in Nigeria:Aquaculture (Fish farming) generally is a lucrative business in Nigeria as the demand for fish is generally high. Catfish is one of the most popular fishes in the Nigerian market. It is commonly used in pepper soup in its fresh form and it can be dried or smoked as well. Due to the high demand of the fish, catfish farming is a very lucrative business. Many people involved in the business boast of at least 50% profit within 6 months. Although, this only happens when the fish are exposed to the right conditions.
Fish farming is an act of breeding, rearing and transplantation of fish by artificial means for commercial purpose, usually for food. It is an aspect of Aquaculture which involves the cultivation of fishes in tanks, ponds, race-ways, pens or other chambers from which they cannot escape. Fish is a good source of protein.
Statistics have shown that fish farming is a viable business. However, there are thousands of species of fish, they include: grass carp, bighead carp, common carp, catia, sea trout, fresh water fish, cyprinids, catfish, silver seabream, tilapia etc.
The most common fish species fish farmers in Nigeria rear for commercial purpose are catfish and tilapia. This is because of our climate, their growth, they are profitable and of high demand. It is pertinent to note that tilapia and catfish are grown highly in Nigeria.
GET THE COMPLETE CATFISH FARMING IN NIGERIA BUSINESS PLAN / FEASIBILITY REPORT Pay N10,000 to
BANK NAME: ZENITH BANK
ACCOUNT NAME: NNAMDI H. ECHEM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 2081865318
After payment text your name, your e-mail address and bank teller number to 07035441589 and you’ll receive your CATFISH FARMING IN NIGERIA BUSINESS PLAN / FEASIBILITY STUDY
Who can be involved in the business?
Anyone can be involved in catfish farming. However, it is advantageous to get some form of training before embarking on this business. This is especially because catfish farming is very delicate. Slight mistakes can lead to loss of assets (fish). Thus, it is important to learn the dos and don’ts of the business to avoid such losses. There are several options online to pick from when it comes to such trainings.
Location of the business.
This is highly dependent on the type of pond you are utilising for the business. You can decide to use an earthen, concrete or tarpaulin pond. For the former, the location matters. However, for the last two, the location doesn’t really matter. You can even construct or install your ponds in your backyard. However, If you are considering using an earthen pond, meaning you will be digging the ground to construct your pond, it is important that you locate your pond in a water-logged area. Ideally somewhere close to a natural source of water. The size of the location will depend on how large or small-scaled you want your farm to be. It is also essential to locate your pond in an easily accessible environment.
Type of fish farming.
There are two main processes when it comes to fish processing. The nursery stage involves the process of fertilization, egg laying, incubation and the hatching of the young fries until they become young fingerlings. On the other hand, the grow–out stage involves rearing fingerlings or juveniles until adulthood. As a fish farmer, you would have to decide on which process you want to be involved in. You can carry out an integrated system where you would be involved in both processes or you can choose one of the processes.
Materials needed for the business
Of course the fish itself! There are several species of catfish, the African catifish (clarias gariepinus) is the most promising candidate for aquaculture in Africa (Machiels, 1987). The large species, which are of interest in aquacture, belong to the sub-genus clarias. In earlier systematic studies on the Africa catfish, five species are recognized with the subgenus. They include C. angnilaries, C. senegalensis, C. lazera, C. mossambicus and C. gariepinus.. You need to decide on which one you want to rear. When deciding on the breed, one should choose disease- resistant and fast growing breeds for obvious economical purposes. Some market research can help you in your decision-making. Now there are also different catfish based on their ages/weight. We have the Fingerling (3 to 4 grams), Post-fingerling (4 – 6 grams), Juvenile (6 – 10 grams), Post-juvenile (10 grams and above). The type of fish you get will depend on the type of fish farming you are involved with. Ideally, one should get a mix of the different types. However, many people opt for juveniles mainly. This is because they are able to survive better compared to fingerlings. It is also important that you purchase your fish from a good source. Catfish not bred properly can result in stunted growth or even death, which will significantly affect the business. Apart from the fish, it is important that you purchase feed for the fish and have access to good and steady water supply. Also you need to purchase chemicals to treat your pond and antibiotics to treat your fish if the need arises. You should also purchase a pond net. This would help prevent predators of fish from penetrating the pond as well as preventing your fish from escaping the pond. You also need to purchase fishing nets or baskets, and weighing scales for harvesting purposes.
Constructing and treating the pond
As mentioned earlier, there are different types of ponds, the earthen pond, concrete pond and tarpaulin pond. The major things to keep in mind when constructing your pond are size, water, oxygen, cleanliness and protection from predators.
Size: The size of your pond depends on the scale of fish farming you are involved in. You should ensure that the pond is big enough to accommodate your fish in a way that they would not be overcrowded. Overcrowding can result in a rapid spread of disease, accumulation of waste, oxygen scarcity and ultimately the death of your fish. Thus, it is highly important to regulate the size of your fishpond.
Water: Fish need clean water to survive. You need to ensure that you have access to a steady supply of water. If you do not have access to a natural source of water, it will be a good idea to construct a borehole. Also, it is important to have a water inlet and outlet. This ensures that you can keep your pond clean easily by changing the water in the pond as often as necessary. This method also prevents flooding of your pond during rainy season.
Oxygen: Oxygen is just as essential for survival of your fish as water is. You can infuse this in your water supply system or you can purchase an aerator depending on your funds. There are different kinds of aerators. If you have access to constant electricity supply then you should purchase the electric aerator. If the case is otherwise, you could also purchase the gas/ diesel powered aerators.
Protection from predators: You should also surround your pond with a pond net to prevent predators from accessing your fish. There are different varieties of this in the market at affordable prices.
Other things you should note is that the pond should have a gradual slope and have some clay soil. Finally it is important to separate your fish as they grow older so as to prevent cannibalism.
It is highly important that you treat your pond before use. There are so many treatment options available in the market. By using these treatment chemicals, you will be getting rid of harmful microorganisms that can significantly affect the health of your fish, thereby preventing potential loss down the line. It is also important that you rid your pond of these chemicals before use as many of these chemicals can affect your fish also. You can use the chemical well in advance before utilising the pond (say three weeks) to ensure that the effect of the chemical has worn off, or you can use water to flush the chemical out of the pond.
Purchasing feed for the fish is the largest expenditure for the fish farmer. The type of feed used will depend on the size of the fish and how the method used in feeding the fish (surface or trough). Usually, at the fry stage, finely ground meal or flour meal (45% protein) is ideal. As the fish grow bigger, you can introduce feed pellets. The diameter of the feed pellet increases, as the fish grow bigger while the protein content of the fish should decrease in a like manner. This is just one method of feeding. There are different method and options when it comes to feeding of fish. You should however, ensure that you do not overfeed your fish as this will result in wastage and this can result in water pollution.
Use of New Generation Unconventional Feed Ingredients
The unconventional feed ingredients are those ingredient that are not commonly used as fish feed ingredients. They include
- Single cell protein
- Whole food organism
- Animal and food processing waste
- Plant protein concentrated
- Cassava leaf meal
- Feed pea (pisum satuvum) etc
Single cell protein (SCP)
Single cell protein typically refers to sources of mixed protein extracted from pure or mixed culture of algae, yeasts, fungi or bacteria (grown on agricultural wates) used as a substitute for protein rich foods, in human and animal feeds.
They offer the following advantage when compared with plant and animal feed protein.
- Their production can be based on raw carbon substrates (coal¸ petroleum and natural gas) which are available in large quantities or on agricultural or cellulose waste products that would otherwise cause environmental hazards.
- Majority of microorganisms cultured are highly proteinous (40-70% of dry weight depending on species).
- They have a very short generation time. Under optimum culture condition, bacteria can double their cell mass within 0.5-2 hours, yeast with 1-3hours and algae within 2-6 hours period.
- They can be cultivated in limited lands space and produced continuously with good control independent of climate.
- To a certain degree, their nutritional composition can be controlled through genetic manipulation (Tacon and Jackson, 1985). The greatest research effort has been centered on the use of yeast single cell protein. Other single cell protein has also been used but good results were obtained only up to 50% inclusion level. Attempts to toally replace fish meal resulted in loss of growth and feed efficiency. Chamberlain and Hopkins (1994) reported that spraying a source of carbon such as wheat bran and cellulose on the surface of pond water with continuous aeration, at optimum carbon nitrogen ratio (15:1) would increase bacterial growth. The produced bacteria consume the carbon source as energy and reduce ammonia concentration through nitrification, while the fish feed on these bacteria.
This approach has been adopted for oriochromis aureus grown intensively in aerated circulated tank as reported . The affirmed that single cell protein thus produced partially replaced expensive protein sources in O. aureus feed.
Whole Food Organisms
Whole food organisms refer to live zooplanktons (rotifers, cope-pods), the feeding on which has become an essential part of the mass propagation of certain larvae and exotic fish species (particularly those fish species where the dietary requirements are still poorly understood). Considerable interest has been recently focused on the use of selected macro-invertebrates (mainly insect larvae and oligochaetes) as means of breaking down and utilizing waste stream (animal manure, domestic sewage, agricultural waste) which otherwise would have little or no direct feed value within a compounded diet. At present waste streams’ are mainly being used for direct pond fertilization but by virtue of their ability to utilize or upgrade waste nutrients into a palatable nutrient rich package, the feed organisms may constitute a potential (although limited) food source for fish (Tacon and Jackson, 1985).
Animal and Food Processing Wastes
The utilization of waste products as feed stuff can be viewed at 3 levels of refinement.
This involves mere avoidance of the disposal cost with the possible benefit of an additional income. Waster products directly utilized in compounded fish feed include, egg processing waster, rendered hide fleshing, carrot waste and activated sludge, dried poultry manure, rumen/paunch contents and dried cattle manure, dired coffee pulp, and brewery and distillery waste FAO, 1983).
Direct nutrient extraction
This is the most refined method and involves the direct recovery of specific nutrients of feed value from a normally heterogeneous waste.
Though there is a wide variety of hazards and tested.
Soybean meal (SBM) is considered as the best source in terms of protein content and essential amino acid profile. However, it is limiting in sulphur containing amino acids (methiomine, lysine, cystine) and contain may endogenous anti-nutrients includeing protease inhibitors, phytohaemaglutin and anti-vitamins. Many of these factors can be destroyed during thermal treatment .
SBM could replace between 67-100% of fish meal depending on the fish species, size, dietary protein level, soybean meal source, processing method and culture system employed (Tacon et al., 1983). Prepressed solvent extraceted SBM with or without methiomine supplement successfully replaced upo to 75% of fish meal in the test diets of Nile tilapia fry Tacon et al., 1983). O. mossanibicus (Jackson et al., 1982), and 67% in the case of tilapia hybrid (El-sayed, 1999). It appears from these studies that tilapia may gain little or no benefit from supplementing SBM with the limiting essential amino acids.
Harvesting and marketing your fish.
You can harvest your fish when they are old or when they are still fingerlings or juveniles depending on the type of fish farming you are involved in. If your target clients are start-up fish farmers, then you should harvest your fish in their juvenile/ fingerlings stages depending on your clients’ preferences. However if your target clients are fish processors or local traders then you should harvest them when they are adults. It takes about 5 months for the fish to reach table size. At this age they usually weigh between 1 and 1.5 kg depending on the breed. At this age they can be sold for between 500-800 naira /kg depending on your location in Nigeria. You can supply hotels or restaurants or local traders or family and friends or export your catfish. Usually, it is dried or frozen and preserved before export. Your profits will depend on who your target clients are. Apart from selling your fish fresh, you could also smoke or dry them, package them and sell them. Fish processed in this way will sell for a higher price and can thus, fetch more profit. However, you should also consider the costs of processing.
Catfish farming is a very lucrative business once it is done in the right way!
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED BEFORE STARTING A FISH FARMING
- Technical know – how (That is, practical fish farming training)
- Good business plan
- Capital to start off
- Get a good location for your fish farm
- Get a good source of water
- Choose the appropriate fish pond
- Environmental factors/hazards
- Decide the right species of fish(s) to cultivate
- Get healthy fingerlings
- Get the appropriate fish feeds
- Understand fish feeding pattern
- Consider the available markets for your fishes
- Economies (start small)
- Financial analysis
Note: You will get the details of the above stated factors in our complete Fish farming business plan.
A business mined fish farmer should have a record book on which information on the day to day activities in the farm will be recorded. Records keeping help the farmer to budget accurately and make informed decisions about the business.
The following records should be adequately kept (both cost and qualities):
- All equipment in the farm
- Numbers of fingerlings purchased
- All feeds purchased and consumed
- Number of fishes sold and used for home consumption
- Death and causes
- Labour and other variable costs
Let me open your understanding to how profitable fish farming could be
Catfish Farming In Nigeria Business Plan / Feasibility Report: for inquiries call 07035441589
CAT FISH/ TILAPIA PRODUCTION AND REVENUE PROJECTION
|Description||Number raised||Less 10% mortality||Number sold 90%||Unit price per fish (N)||Total Revenue (N)|
|Cat fish||3,000||3,000 – 300||0.9 x 2,700
|1200||1200 x 2,430 = 2,916,000|
|Tilapia||1,500||1,500 – 150||0.9 x 1,350 = 1,215||1000||1000 x 1,215 = 1,215,000|
|Total for the first four (4) months||N4,131,000|
It is a fact that cat fish and tilapia mature from 4 months, so the farmer has two circles of production in a year but what was projected above was only based on one circle for illustration purposes. The revenue table above shows that the business is viable. The market price of cat fish is from N1,500 per fish and above but projection was based on N1,200 per fish. Also tilapia’s market price is N1, 300 and above, but the projection was based on N1,000 90% of the total fish production sold.
The low price used was because anytime market price falls it will not fall below the projection price.
N.B: You can place your order for a detailed business plan on fish Farming. The issues of cash flow, profit and loss, and revenue projections will be treated.
In the catfish business plan and feasibility study contains the following:
Table of Contents of the Catfish Business Plan and Feasibility Study
2) Executive Summary: The summary includes introduction, products and services description, marketing and sales of the catfish business
3) Company Overview: This includes: mission statement, history and current status of business, market and products, objectives, keys to success and cost summary
4) Product description: Description of the product (Catfish). This includes: the size, length, weight, etc.
5) Industry and Market Analysis: Introduction, industry analysis, market analysis, customer analysis, competitor analysis, S.W.O.T analysis
6) Marketing Strategy: Target market strategy, product/service strategy, pricing strategy, distribution strategy, advertising and promotion strategy, sales strategy, marketing and sales forecasts
7) Operations: Operations strategy, scope of operations, operating expenses
8) Development: Development strategy, development timeline, development expenses
9) Management: Company organization, management team, administrative expenses
10) Summary of Financials: Financial assumptions, financial forecasts, projected cash flow, income statement
iii. Balance sheet: Profit and loss, profit margin, chart etc, financial risks
11) Appendices: Support for product/service description, support for marketing and sales plan, support for development plan, support for operations plan, resumes of management team
Financial Statements: Income statement [3 years], balance sheets [3 years], cash flow Statements [3 years],ratio analysis [3 years],other supporting financial statements
GRAB YOUR OWN COMPLETE CATFISH FARMING IN NIGERIA BUSINESS PLAN / FEASIBILITY REPORT Pay N10,000 to
BANK NAME: ZENITH BANK
ACCOUNT NAME: NNAMDI H. ECHEM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 2081865318
After payment text your name, your e-mail address and bank teller number to 07035441589 and you’ll receive your CATFISH FARMING IN NIGERIA BUSINESS PLAN / FEASIBILITY STUDY.
Your business plan will be sent to your email within 15 minutes
For more inquiries call 07035441589